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Viking Information.

 

 

   
Harold I  
Eric Bloodaxe (c. 910-954), King of Norway (c. 933-935)
   
   
Eric Bloodaxe (c. 910-954), King of Norway (c. 933-935) and the last Viking king of York (947-948 and 952-954). He was the favourite son of Harold I of Norway. Eric seems to have had considerable authority during the last years of his father, who abdicated in his favour; his killing of his brothers and rivals won him the nickname “Bloodaxe”. Dethroned and expelled from Norway in 935 by his half-brother Håkon I because of his misrule, Eric led a complicated career as a wandering adventurer that culminated at York, where he gained power in 947. Defeated by Eadred in 948, he was replaced in York by Olaf Sihtricson, Viking king of Dublin. In 952 he regained power at York, but was defeated by the English and, betrayed by his own associates, he was killed at Stainmore in 954. He left a great reputation in Scandinavia for both courage and cruelty, and is remembered as the last independent ruler at York..  

 
914. A sharp naval engagement (Ware Antiq.) happened near the isle of Man between Barred and Reginald Mac-Yvor, two Danes, (the latter of whom was king of Dublin) Reginald obtained the victory, and slew Barred, and a great number of his party.  
   
   
   
   
916. (Carad of Lhancarvan). The Ostmen of Dublin made an expedition into the island of Anglesey in Wales, and wasted it from end to end with fire and sword.  
919. Was memorable (Ware.) for a sharp battle fought between Neill Glundub, king of Ireland, and the Ostmen, near Dublin, on the 15th of September, in which king Neill and a great number of the principal officers of his army were slain. Donat Mac-Flan O-Melaghlin succeeded him, and the year following revenged his predecessor's death by the greatest slaughter of the Danes that ever before happened in Ireland insomuch, that scarce one half of their great army escaped (Mac-Geoghagan's Annals, MS).  
Dundalk at its head. The bay was the scene of fighting between the Irish and the Vikings in the 10th century: in 929 Muirchertach, King of Aileach, captured a Norse fleet; a few years later, Cellachan, King of Munster, was rescued from Vikings here after a naval battle  
940 Olaf Godfreyson, a Viking ruler of Dublin, seized the territory of Northumbria in northern England and extended his rule as far south as Leicester. Olaf's death in 941,
A. D. 944. (War. Antiq. c. 24) Congelach Mae-Maelith, king of Ireland, by the assistance of Brien, king of Leinster, assaulted, took, plundered and burned Dublin having slain (as it is said) 4,000 Ostmen there, and put the remainder of them, with their king Blacar to flight  
King Harold III Hard Ruler  
Olaf III, The Quiet (died 1093) Olaf brought the Norse fleet to Norway after his father was defeated and killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge He ruled jointly with his brother Magnus II Barefoot from 1066 to 1069, and after the death of his brother he ruled alone. His reign was noted for peace and for the continued Christianization of Norway King of Norway (1066-1093),
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 


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Abelard, Peter (1079-c. 1142), French philosopher and theologian, whose fame as a teacher made him one of the most celebrated figures of the 12th century. Born in Le Pallet, Brittany, Abelard left home to study at Loches with the French nominalist philosopher Roscelin and later in Paris with the French realist philosopher William of Champeaux. Critical of his masters, Abelard began to teach at Melun, at Corbeil, and, in 1108, at Paris. He soon gained fame throughout Europe as a teacher and as an original thinker. In 1117 he became tutor to Héloïse, the niece of Fulbert, a canon of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris.

Héloïse and Abelard fell in love, and she gave birth to a son whom they named Astrolabe. At Abelard’s insistence they were married secretly; he persuaded Héloïse to take holy vows at the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Argenteuil. Her uncle Fulbert, at first enraged by the relationship between the two and later somewhat placated by their marriage, finally decided, however, that Abelard had abandoned Héloïse at the abbey and had him castrated. The couple then separated: Héloïse joined an order of nuns, while Abelard retired to a religious retreat, the Abbey of Saint-Denis-en-France, in Paris.

Abelard’s first published work, a treatise on the Trinity (1121), was condemned and ordered to be burnt by a Roman Catholic council that met at Soissons in the same year. Forced by criticism to leave Saint-Denis-en-France, Abelard founded a chapel and oratory, called the Paraclete, at Nogent-sur-Seine. In 1125 he was elected abbot of the monastery at Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuis, where he wrote his autobiographical Historia Calamitatum (History of Misfortunes, 1132). At this time the famous exchange of letters with Héloïse began, letters that have become classics of romantic correspondence. In 1140 St Bernard of Clairvaux, an eminent French ecclesiastic who thought Abelard’s influence dangerous, prevailed upon a Roman Catholic council in session at Sens, and upon Pope Innocent II, to condemn Abelard for his sceptical, rationalistic writings and teaching. On his way to Rome to appeal against the condemnation, Abelard accepted the hospitality of Peter the Venerable, abbot of the Abbey of Cluny, remaining there for many months. Abelard died at a Clunist priory near Chalon-sur-Saône. His body was taken to the Paraclete; when Héloïse died in 1164 she was buried beside him. In 1817 both bodies were moved to a single tomb in the cemetery of Père Lachaise in Paris.

The romantic appeal of the life of Abelard often overshadows the importance of his thought. He was, however, one of the leading thinkers of the Middle Ages. In the emphasis he placed on dialectical discussion, Abelard followed the 9th-century philosopher and theologian John Scotus Erigena, and he foreshadowed the Italian Scholastic philosopher Thomas Aquinas. Abelard’s important dialectical thesis that truth must be attained by carefully weighing all sides of any issue is presented in Sic et Non (Thus and Otherwise, c. 1123). He also foreshadowed the later theological reliance on the works of Aristotle, rather than on those of Plato.

Abelard reacted strongly against the theories of extreme realism, denying that universals have an independent existence outside the mind. According to Abelard, “universal” is a functional word expressing the combined image of that word’s common associations within the mind. This position is not nominalism, because Abelard adds that the associations from which the image is formed and to which a universal name is given have a certain likeness, or common nature. His theory is a definite step towards the moderate realism of Aquinas, but it lacks an explanation of how ideas are formed. In the development of ethics, Abelard’s great contribution was to maintain that an act is to be judged by the intention of the doer in doing it.

In addition to the writings mentioned, Abelard wrote many works in Latin on ethics, theology, and dialectics, as well as poetry and hymns.