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The Chronology of Ireland.

Irish Timelines.

Irish Chronology.

Listed below are many important events in Irish history.
Choose a period from the jump menu below.

Evidence in County Offaly of Early human activity.
Evidence of settlers found at Newferry Co Antrim
A huge burial mound built containing about three hundred tombs at Carrowmore Co Sligo.
First Neolithic settlements, and megalithic tombs.
Newgrange built in the Boyne valley.Video's about Newgrange.
Elaborate funeral rituals, many bodies are adorned with gold jewelry and decorated beakers.
c.1750 500
The bronze age, fine examples in bronze copper and gold
The elaborate funeral's seem to be dying out.
Golden ornaments proliferating, many made from gold imported from Spain and Europe.
Circular defensive settlement built in Co Armagh 'Emain Macha'
The laws of the Fenechus (or land Tillers) Known as the Brehon Laws deriving from the word breitheamh (meaning Judge) Tradition has it that they were gathered by the high King Ollamh Fodhla
The Celtic tribes invade Ireland
The iron age begins.
Ireland is mentioned under the name of Ierne in a Greek poem.
Emhain Macha is chosen as the headquarters of the Ulaid tribe.
The Roman cartographer Ptolemy draws a map the river Shannon.
The Black Pig's Dyke a defensive structure running along the southern border of Ulster was built by the Ulaid and Cruithin.
Tribes in central Ireland build massive earth wall along the Shannon, to keep our warring northern tribes.

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Queen Boudica of the Icini tribe England rise in revolt against the Romans, in response to seizure of her lands and the rape of her young daughters, after significant successes, the revolt was crushed later in the year.
Following successes in northern Britain, the Romans consider invading Ireland believing it to have large reserves of gold
Traffic on new Roman roads in Britain is ordered to drive on the left.
Development of the Ogham alphabet inscribed on stone.
The Emperor Constantine decides to unify Rome under Christianity.
At the battle of Achadh Leithdheirg in Co Monaghan the Ulaid of Ulster were defeated.
The first water mill in Ireland was built at Tara in County Meath by King Cormac MacArt
St Declan a monk from Wales set up a monastery at Ardmore in Co Waterford
The Suevs followed by the Bugundians and Alamanni fled from the advancing Rhine and entered Gaul
The Romans withdraw their legions from Britain
Following the Roman withdrawal Irish naval forces begin raids on western Britain
Rome is sacked by the Vandals and the Visi-goth, latterly known as Goths under Alaric from latter day Germany
Ninian becomes the first known Christian missionary in Scotland.
Pope Celestine sends a deacon, Palladius to convert the Irish
St Patrick arrives in Ireland.
Lohaire high King of Ireland appoints nine people one of whom was Patrick to revise and transcribe the Brehon Law's into Latin.
Lohaire's commission presents its findings.
Armagh founded by St Patrick. Originally known as Ard Macha
Movilla Abbey Mag Bile 'Plain of the sacred tree' was founded by Finian
Examination of tree rings suggest that this was the second coldest year since the end of the Ice Age in Ireland.
Alphin McEochaid, King of Dublin, and his subjects, were converted to the Christian faith by St. Patrick More Info.
27th November. Bishop Sechnall 'Secundinus' dies
17th March Traditionally the date of St Patrick's death.
Establishment of Monasteries and Monastic art's flourish.
Finnian founds a monastery at Clonard Co Meath 3000 students
Derry founded by St Columcille.
St Comgall founded a monastery at Bangor Co Down.
Battle of Culdremna.
Columcille sails to Iona, where he Christianized Scotland and much of England.
The Cruthan were defeated at the battle of Moneymore (Moin Dairi Lothair) by the Ui Neill of the North.
The Annals of Ulster
The King of Dál Riata gained important support from the Uí Néill dynasty and, as a reward, he was granted the island of Iona for a new monastic foundation
Irish kings meet at Druim Cett to discuss relationship with Scotland
The death of St. Brendan of Clonfert known also as 'Brendan the Navigator'
Death of St Finian
A dispute between Columba and Comgall regarding the church of Ros-Torathair, a Bangor foundation, resulted in a battle at Coleraine between the Cruthan and the Ui Neill
The death of Fergus bishop of Druim Lethglassie. (Downpatrick Co Down)
Columbanus sets of on his great missionary journey
Saint Columcille dies.
Comgall of the Cruthan died at Bangor aged ninety one.
April; Pope John IV sent an outspoken letter to Tommene bishop of Armagh.
The St. Gall's school of music was founded in Switzerland by Irish harper Cellach, from Bangor, Co. Down, his name was later latinized to Gallus or Gall.
Death of Columbanus
Monks at Nendrum Co Down build a water powered mill.
St Aidan an Irish monk founds the monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumbria, more
The "Annals of Ulster" record this was the year of the death of Ailill the harper, son of Aedh Slaine.
Domnall II King of Tara defeated his foster son Congall near Moira in Co Down on 24th June
The book of Durrow written.
The first biography of St. Brigit commissioned at the monastery she founded.
A plague lasting for several years breaks out, killing thousands.
At the Synod of Whitby Bishop Colman spoke on behalf of the Scots (Ulstermen) but in the end it was decided that the Celtic church should conform to the Roman celebration of Easter.
Colman the ex bishop of Lindisfarne founds a monastery on the island of Innishboffin Co Mayo.
A severe winter follows a great famine.
The book of Durrow is written. (Now in Trinity College Dublin).
King Egfrith of Northumbria sends troops to raid Ireland, where his exiled brother and English refugees sought asylum, they ravage Co Meath.
A Church synod accepts the Roman method of dating Easter
The Breton laws established.
11th July The Battle of Corann/Cath Corainn was fought on this day.
The Kilnasaggart Pillar stone is carved in Co Armagh, it is the oldest dated monument in Ireland.
Irish craftsmen make the Ardagh Chalice.
The Senchas Mor 'Great old knowledge' A complication of the Brehon Laws is written.
Bede a Anglo Saxon monk declared that the world was a sphere. He died in April this year
Ulstermen defeated at the hands of the Gaels (Ui Neill) at Fochairt near Dundalk.
In Terryglass Co Monaghan Aed Allen mac Fergaile and Cathal mac Finguine the most powerful rulers in the north and south of Ireland respectively, agree to settle their territorial differences. The south agrees to recognize Armagh's primacy over the Irish church.
It is recorded that there was a battle fought between Clonmacnoise and the inhabitants of Birr in a place called Moyne Koysse Blaie.
The Clonmacnoise and Birr monasteries go to war.
Durrow monastery suffers 200 dead when it fights a pitched battle with the monks of Clonmacnoise.
The first recorded Viking raids took place on the monasteries of Rathlin, Inishmurray and Inishbofin.
Battle in Lough Ree between the Viking Turgesius and King Mael Schnaill of Tara
Viking attack on Lambay Island, off the Dublin coast.
Book of Kells created, it had 680 pages all but 2 were in colour.
The monastery on Iona (Scotland) is attached by Norsemen
17th March. More than one thousand people are killed in storms on the west coast of Ireland.
New law codes introduced in Ireland known as the 'Lar of Patrick'
More Info
Monks from Iona bring an illustrated manuscript which became known as the Book of Kells, to Kells Monastery Co Meath for safekeeping from Viking raids.
The Book of Armagh compiled. It is now in Trinity College Dublin.
The Ulaid of north eastern Ireland clashed with the Norse Viking's and defeated them. (More Info)
Viking's sack the monastery on Scattery island Co Clare.
Many monks are killed when Viking's raid Bangor, Movilla and Downpatrick in Co Down.
Viking's raid the Skelligs rock Co Kerry
Viking's raid Bangor again and destroy the oratory.
The monasteries of Down & Movilla on Strangford Lough in Co Down were raided.
The King Airgialla was defeated at Leth Caim, north eastern Ireland. (More Info)
A Viking chief called Thorgestr brought a fleet up the Shannon into Lough Ree
Viking 's sail up the river Bann into Lough Neagh and over-winter in 840-41.
Viking's founded Dublin
Viking's are reported to have spent a year in Lough Neagh plundering as far as Armagh.
Viking's raid Dublin and Annagassan in Co Louth
The Viking chief Thorgest attacks and desecrates Clonmacnoise, and places his wife on the high alter.
The primate of Armagh was captured and carried off by Viking's
Over 260 people hiding in a church at Trevet (Co Louth) were burned by Cinead mac Conaig King of Brega (Leinster) who was allied with the Norse against high King Mael Sechnall.
High King Mael Sechnall of the Ui Neill dynasty, who executed his rival Cinead Earlier this year is recognized as over Lord of the Ulaid dynasty.
The Norse King Olaf of Norway lands with his army and assumes control of the settlement at Dublin.
The Norse establish an alliance with Irish chief Aed Findlaith against high King Máel Sechnaill.
High King Máel Sechnaill died on 27th November
He is succeeded to the throne by his enemy Aed Findlaith
The Norse sack the ancient Boyne passage tombs
In north eastern Ireland Aed Findlaith destroys Norse settlements to avenge raids in the Boyne valley.
The high King Aed Findlaith defeats a force of Norse and Leinster men at Killinnery Co Louth.
20th Nov St. Edmund, Saxon king of East Anglia, was martyred by the Vikings, who tied him to a tree, shot at him with arrows, then beheaded him. His bodied is enshrined at Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk.
Aulaffe Norse King of Dublin raids Britain. More Info.
The Norse leader Halfdan is killed in battle on Strangford Lough Co Down by the Dublin Norse.
11th November Freak winds destroy forests churches and houses.
During the Witsun celebrations at Armagh many killed in tribal clash. More Info
Ireland visited possibly by a plague of locusts. More Info.
The Irish attack and destroy the Viking's ettlement of Dublin. Many of the inhabitants move to York.
The Eoganachta were defeated. Their King , Cormac MacCullenan killed.
Viking's attacks renewed they established settlements at Waterford and Limerick.
The Battle of Dublin. in which Nial Glendubh a northern King was killed.
Viking's establish settlement at Limerick.
Muirchertach, son of Niall Glendubh defeated the Viking's in a sea battle on Strangford Lough County Down
It was reported Muirchertach beheaded 200 Viking's at Carlingford
Viking's massacre a thousand Irish in the Dunmore Cave Co Kilkenny.
The Danes of Lough Cuan [ Strangford Lough ] were slaughtered.
Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks burned the Norse settlement in Dublin.
Muirchertach ravaged the Norse settlements in the Scottish isles with an Ulster fleet.
The son of Randalfe the Dane spoilt Dunleithglasse [ Downpatrick]. He was killed a week later by Mathew,(Muirchertach) King of Ulster.
Muirchertach died at the battle of Ardee.
Viking's destroy the monastery at Slane in Co Meath.
Viking's plunder St. Mullins monastery in Co Carlow.
The Viking city of Limerick is plundered by the Dal Cais (Brian Boru's tribe).
350 People burnt alive in Dunleer Monastery Co Louth by the O'Neills.
Brian Boru succeeds his murdered brother Mathgamain (Mahon) as King of the Dal Cais.
Brian Boru claims the King ship of Munster.
High King Mael Sechneill II, (Of the O'Neills) defeats the Viking King Olaf Sigtryggsson at Tara Co Meath, Olaf flees to Iona Scotland leaving behind his Irish wife Gormlaith a Leinster princess and several sons, he died on Iona the following year.
Eric the Red, who was exiled from Norway to Iceland in 961 leads an expedition of 700 people to Greenland, which they hope to colonize, only 14 of the 25 ships which set out arrived.
Viking 's establish the first mint in Ireland, producing silver pennies.
High King Mael Sechneill II, captures Dublin after a siege
Mael Sechnaill and Brian Boru agree to divide Ireland between them.
The first Irish coins are minted in Dublin by King Sitric Silkenbeard. ?
Brian Boru defeats the combined army's of Leinster and Dublin at Glenmama, Co Wicklow.

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AD 1000

Brian Boru attacks the territory of the Ui Neill.
Brian Boru becomes first high King of Ireland after Mael Sechnaill concedes the King ship to him.
Brian Boru visits Armagh and confirms its primacy in the church.
The book of Kells stolen from Kells monastery it was recovered 2 months and 20 days later minus its gold.
Murtagh O'Carry Calma took Molloye or Moylemoy, Prince of Ferkeall out of the church of Durrow and killed him at Moylena close to Durrow.
Brian Boru (940-1014) defeats Viking's at Clontarf. He is killed.
Christchurch Cathedral Dublin built.
Sitric Silkbeard's son is kidnapped by the Irish and ransomed for silver, 2,000 cattle and 120 British horses.
4th June Gruffydd ap Llewellyn, Welsh King of Gwynedd and Powys, defeated an English attack.
8th June: Harthacnut, King of England and Denmark, died. He was succeeded in England by his adopted heir, Edward the Confessor, and in Denmark by Magnus, King of Norway.
5th January Death of Edward the Confessor, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. He was called ‘the Confessor’ because of his great piety. His death led to the Norman Conquest.
28th Sept Claiming his right to the throne of England, William, Duke of Normandy began his invasion of England, landing at Pevensey (East Sussex).
14th Oct Normans defeat Saxons in England at the Battle of Hastings
Murrough MacFlann, claimant to the high King ship is murdered in the round tower of Kells Monastery.
The beginning of a period when ecclesiastical metalwork inspired by a mixture of Norse and Irish styles flourished.
Muirchertach Mor O'Brian becomes King of Munster
Ulstermen destroy Mungrey Abbey (Limerick).
Monks on Leane Island in Killarney begin to compile the Annals of Innisfallen.
13th Nov Malcolm III of Scotland, son of King Duncan, died at Alnwick, Northumberland, during his fifth attempt to invade England
First Crusade proclaimed by Pope Urban II, Irish join in great numbers.
Many casualties when Munster men burn the monastery at Lusk Co Dublin.
3rd June After a five month siege during the First Crusade, the Crusaders capture the city of Antioch.

AD 1100

The shrine of St Patrick's Bell is made.
The first Synod of Cashel.
Muirchertach Mor O'Brian becomes high King of Ireland
The Rock of Cashel is granted to the church by King Muirchertach, son of Turlough O'Brian
The Grianan of Aileach capital of the O'Neill's, is torn down by the army of Munster.
St Anselm of Canterbury urges the reform of the Irish church.
King Muirchertach marries one of his three daughters to Arnulf of Montgomery a Norman Lord who sends Gerald of Windsor as his envoy.
Magnus Barefoot killed at Strangford Lough in Co Down
The book of the Dun Cow is completed at Clonmacnoise by Maol Mhuire, it contains The Tain the Earl iest long literary text in Irish.
Blind harper, Ferdomnach, Lector Of Kildare, who was known as 'Master Of Harping' was killed.
Turlough O'Connor revives the Feast of Tara
The high cross of Cong (Co Mayo) is made for Turlough O'Connor King of Connacht
St Malachy is made bishop of Down and Connor.
The round tower at Clonmacnoise is built.
Diarmuid (Dermot) MacMurrough becomes King of Leinster
Erenagh Monastery founded in county Down by Savingac order of Normandy.
The book of Leinster is compiled, it contains a diagram of the banqueting hall of Tara.
Donnogh O Molloy, King of Fearceall was killed in captivity by Murrough O Melaghlin. Mortagh O Molloy who succeeded Doonogh as King of Fearceall, was burnt by the family of Moyntyr Swanym in the church of Rahan in Offaly
5th March The birth of King Henry II, who was to become the first Plantagenet king of England
Cattle herds are afflicted by a disease lasting two years.
The Clonmacnoise round tower is struck by lightening and badly damaged.
1st Dec England's King Henry I died. He had fallen ill seven days earlier after eating too many lampreys (jawless fish resembling eels). He was 66, and had ruled for 35 years.
Mellifont Abbey the first Cistercian monastery in Ireland is founded
30th August A conference of European leaders outlawed the crossbow. It was hoped that by banning the weapon, wars would eventually end. Despite the prohibition, crossbows continued to be used until the 16th century, when they were replaced by firearms.
Bective Abbey is founded by the Cistercian's in Co Meath.
At the battle of Moin Mor Turlough O'Connor and Dermot MacMurrough defeat Turlough OBrien, King of Munster. Sources report 7000 Munster men killed.
Synod of Kells established the Celtic church in its own Authority
Paparo the first papal legate sent to Ireland, presiding over the Synod of Kells.
Dervorgilla wife of Tiernan O'Rourke (Prince of Breifne.) Is abducted by Dermot MacMurrough (Diarmait Mac Murchada King of Leinster)
Dervorgilla is returned to her husband.
4th Nov Nicholas Breakspear becomes the first and only English Pope he adopts the name of Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV issues the Bull Laudabiliter, granting Henry II of England permission to go to Ireland to reform the Celtic Church. (Some claim this document a forgery)
1st September Pope Adrian IV, (Nicholas Breakspeare), the only English pope, died.
Dermot MacMurrough is driven from Ireland In England he seeks help from Norman knights.
The Anglo Norman invasion begins. MacMurrough is given back the King ship of Leinster
The Anglo Norman leader Richard FitzGilbert de Clare 'Strongbow' lands in Waterford. He marries MacMurrough's daughter Aoife He attacks and captures Dublin and invades Meath.
December 29 Henry II's men murder Thomas Beckett in Canterbury Cathedral
1st May (Ferns Co Wexford) MacMurrough dies Strongbow assumes the King ship of Leinster
17th October Henry II of England arrives in Ireland.
Hugh de Lacy is granted Lordship of Meath. He builds a motte and bailey at Trim Co Meath.
Pope Alexander III writes to the Irish King s advising them to recognize Henry II.
King Henry II imprisons his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and takes up with his mistress, Rosamund Clifford. Henry's sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey lead a revolt against him, but the House of Commons remains behind the King ..
Pope Alexander III writes praising Henry II on his Irish conquests.
The Norman castles of Trim and Dunleek attacked and destroyed by Rory of Connaught.
October Limerick City stormed by Anglo Norman's under Raymond la Gross
Treaty of Windsor Rory O'Connor submits to Henry II who recognized O'Connor as King of the UN-conquered areas of Ireland.
20th April Strongbow dies age 47 of gangrene and is buried in Christchurch Dublin. His daughter and heir Isabella de Clare is a minor. Meath is administered by the state until she comes of age.
Prince John of England becomes Lord of Ireland.
John de Courcy builds a castle at Downpatrick Co Down.
John de Courcy begins the construction of Carrickfergus Castle.
Hugh de Lacy marries the daughter of Rory O'Connor.
Rory O'Connor retires to Cong abbey in Co Mayo after being forced to abdicate by his sons and William Fitz Adeln
24th April Prince John lands to curb the power of John de Courcy
Hugh de Lacy killed by a workman at Durrow Abbey Co Offaly.
Monks from Mellifont Co Louth established an Abbey at Abbeyfeal Co Limerick
William Marshall marries Strongbow's daughter Isabella, thereby inheriting Strongbow's estates.
Henry II, at Chinon, France. His son, Richard the Lionheart (Coeur de Lion), succeeds him. Although King for 10 years, Richard spent only 10 months in England.
Great part of Dublin was consumed by an accidental fire.
Giraldus Cambresis writes the first version of his account of Ireland
Dervorgilla dies at Mellifont Abbey in Co Louth
Augustinian's from Bodmin Cornwall establish the priory of Kells Co Kildare.
Rory O'Connor the last high King of Ireland dies and is buried at Clonmacnoise
The body of Hugh de Lacy (who had been murdered at Durrow in 1186) was this year removed from among the Irish, and buried at Bective in the county of Meath, by Matthew archbishop of Cashel, and John archbishop of Dublin; but they deposited his head in the abbey of St. Thomas, near Dublin. (From the annals of Dublin)
9th June: The remains of St Patrick, St Brigid and St Columcille are buried with great ceremony by Cardinal Vivian of Rome and fifteen Bishops at Downpatrick in County Down.
Rory 'Roderick' O'Conor the last high King 'Ard-ri' of Ireland died.
6th April: Richard I died age 41 at Limose in France after receiving a wound from a crossbob bolt, while sieging Chalus Castle

AD 1200

William Marshall founds Tintern Abbey in Co Wexford with monks from Tintern Abbey in south Wales. In fulfillment of a vow made during a stormy crossing of the Irish sea.
The Normans consolidate their position.
In eastern Ulster the King of Dál Fiatach, Ruaidhrí Mac Dhuinnshléibhe, was slain by John de Courcy
John de Courcy was defeated by Hugh de Lacy in battle at Downpatrick County Down.
A. D. 1204. Great numbers fell by the plague this year, in Dublin and the neighbouring parts. (From The Annals of Dublin)
Clonmacnoise is burnt down for the 26th time in its history.
Great numbers fell by the plague this year, in Dublin and the neighboring parts.
Normans begin building Dublin castle.

A. D. 1205. Meyler Fitz-Henry, lord justice of Ireland, signified to king John, that he had no secure place to deposit his treasure in, and that for that, as well as other necessary occasions, it would be requisite to erect a strong fortress at Dublin in pursuance of which application, the commanded him by writ (See chapter 1) to erect a castle in Dublin, in such a place as he should think proper, in order to secure and defend the same, and to inclose it with strong wails: but first he commanded him to build a tower, unless a castle and palace might be more conveniently raised; for the building which work he assigned him 300 marks due to the king by Jeffery Fitz-Robert.

(From The Annals of Dublin)
29th May. King John grants Hugh de Lacy all of de Courcy's land and created him Earl of Ulster.

Meyler Fitz-Henry, lord justice of Ireland, petitioned King John for permission to build a castle in Dublin, to store his treasure, John granted permission and awarded him 300 marks, due to the king by Jeffery Fitz-Robert

William Marshall founds a Cistercian abbey Graiguenamanagh (Duiske) in Co Kilkenny
1st October King Henry III of England was born.
De Lacy together with his half brother Walter are at war with the English of Munster.
King John returns to Ireland to curb the powers of Hugh de Lacy.
King John granted a license to the citizens of Dublin to erect a bridge over the Liffey,
15th June: King John agreed to put his royal seal on the Magna Carta, or Great Charter of English liberties, at Runnymede, near Windsor. The document, made peace between John and his barons, and guaranteed the nobles their feudal privileges and promised to maintain the nation's laws.

The Annals of Innishfallen were completed around this time

11th Oct King John lost his crown and jewels whilst crossing 'The Wash'.
19th Oct King John dies, he is succeeded by Henry III as King and Lord of Ireland.
November Magna Carta issued for Ireland.
The so called "Brian Boru's Harp" now housed in Trinity College, Dublin, was built in this year for Donnchadh Cairbre O'Brien, King of Thomond.
The Multi angular keep of Trim castle is completed by William Peppard.
:Aedh, a harp maker, a son of Donlevy O'Sochlann, Vicar of Cong, died. Aedh is credited with designing the method of tuning harps still used today.
The town of Clonmacnois in County Offaly was three times set on fire by the son of Donnell Bregagh O'Melaghlin.
The Abbot of Mellifont resigns after a papal examination of abuses at the abbey.
O'Brien tried, without success to buy back his "Brian Boru's harp" from Scotland.
16th April William the Marshall (Younger) Died under suspicious circumstances in Kilkenny castle.
Richard de Burgo conquered Connaught.
24th Jan The marriage of Henry III of England to Eleanor of Provence.
Coins minted in Dublin depict the King's head within a harp.
Henry III's son Edward becomes Lord of Ireland.
Gallowglasses (Mercenary soldiers of Scottish-Norse origins from the western isles of.) come to Ulster from Scotland
16th May. Brian O'Neill defeated by Anglo-Norman army at Downpatrick.
Irish clans enlist the help of King Haakon IV of Norway He brings The gall-oglach (gallowglasses) Who were a combination of Scots and Norse.
Walter de Burgo was made Earl of Ulster.
The harp became the symbol of all of Ireland.
A great earthquake was felt in Ireland, which, being a thing very uncommon, struck more terror into the people, than it did them mischief. (Annals of Dublin)
Robert de Ufford builds Roscommon Castle.
Henry III dies he is succeeded by Edward I.


On the 2d of January the greatest part of the city of Dublin was burned down by an accidental fire, which did not spare the steeple, chapter-house, dormitory and cloisters of Christ-church: but such was the devotion of the citizens, that they first set about a collection for the repair of the church before they thought of re-edifying their own houses.
22nd July The English used longbows for the first time, when they defeated the Scots at the Battle of Falkirk. The Scottish pikemen were cut to pieces by Edward I's archers.
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AD 1300

7th Feb Edward of Caernarfon (later King Edward II) became the first Prince of Wales, a title traditionally given to the English royal heir.

13th of June A great part of the city of Dublin was consumed by fire, Bridge Street, the quay, the church of the Dominicans, and one quarter of St. Mary's Abbey were destroyed, the latter held records in chancery, many of which were lost. (Annals of Dublin)

Muirchertach O Conchobuir (O'Connor) and 29 others were slain by Sir Piers Bermingham. Sir Piers was entertaining them before he had them murdered
7th July England's King Edward I, conqueror of Wales and 'Hammer of the Scots' died on the way to Scotland to fight Robert the Bruce. He was succeeded by Edward II.
Piers de Bermingham dies.
The bakers of. Dublin were drawn on hurdles at horses tails through the streets, as a punishment for using false weights and other evil practices. This happened in a year of great scarcity, when a cronoge of wheat sold for 20 s. and upwards.
Two daughters of Richard de Burgh 'The Red Earl' were married in Greencastle Castle County Down one to Robert the Bruce later to become king of Scotland.
The septs of the O-Birnes and O-Tools invaded Tassagard and Rathcool, striking terror into the citizens of Dublin, The citizens were powerless against them, as their forces were supressing a riot raised by Robert de Verdon in Urgile, (Louth.) But upon the submission of Verdon, the O-Birnes and O-Tools were quelled. (Annals of Dublin)
13th Nov Birth of Edward III, King of England from 1327. He invaded Scotland and was soundly beaten at Bannockburn.
25th June Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II at Bannockburn and so completed his expulsion of the English from Scotland. Click here for a picture of Robert the Bruce.
After the battle of Bannockburn, Edward Bruce is invited to invade Ireland by a coalition of Irish Earls led by O'Neill of Tyrone.
25th May. Edward Bruce lands at Larne Co Antrim with an army of 7,000 men.

1st May Edward Bruce crowned himself King of Ireland at Knocknemelan Hill near Dundalk County Louth.
24th June At the Siege of Carrickfergus Castle by the Bruce army during a parley the castle defenders seized 30 Scots. The Laud Annals reports that 8 of these were killed and eaten.
September; Edward's brother Robert joins him they take much of the midlands.
As a result of the conflict famine is developing in Ireland.
At the battle Disert O'Dea the O'Brien's regained their King ship
14th October Edward Bruce killed by the English, and his army defeated at the Battle at Faughart near Dundalk.
Edward II abdicated his Queen rules until their son Edward III comes of age in 1330.
25th Jan Edward III acceded to the English throne.
Adam Duffe O-Toole was convicted of blasphemy in Dublin, viz. for denying the incarnation of Christ, the trinity in unity, for assuming that the blessed virgin was an harlot, that there was no resurrection, that the scriptures were a mere fable, and that the apostolical see was an imposture and usurpation, and the next year, pursuant to his sentence, was burned on Hoggin-green (Now College-green) near Dublin.
21st Sept Deposed King Edward II of England was murdered, with a red hot poker in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire by order of his wife, to ensure the succession of his son Edward III.
The Annals recorded 'Much thunder and lightning this year, whereby much of the fruit and produce of all Ireland was ruined'.
7 th June Robert I 'the Bruce', king of Scotland died. He earned a place in Scottish history for his legendary victory over the English at Bannockburn in 1314
A great famine afflicted all Ireland More Info
So great a frost was this year from the 2nd of December to the 10th of February, that the river Liffey was frozen over so hard as to bear dancing, running, playing football, and making fires to broil herrings on. The depth of the snow that fell during this frost, is almost incredible; yet it is agreed, that such a season was never before known in Ireland; however, we do not find that it was followed by any scarcity. (Annals of Dublin)
It is reported that on the 11th of October this year, and the 11th day of the moon, two moons were seen by many about Dublin, in the morning before day-break. The one was bright, and, according to its natural course in the west, the other in the east with very little light.
Ireland records it first occurrence of the Black Death with outbreaks at Howth and Droheda, between August and Christmas, 14.000 perished in Dublin. More >>>
19th Sept Led by Edward, the Black Prince, the English defeated the French at the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War.
An edict bans pureblooded Irish from becoming mayors, bailiffs, officers of the King or clergymen, serving the English.
Statutes of Kilkenny prohibits any integration between the Anglo Normans and the Irish.
22nd Feb King Robert II of Scotland succeeded to the throne.
21st June: Edward III dies Richard II grandson of Edward age 10 becomes King of England.
The book of Ballymote written, it gives keys to the Ogham alphabet.
2nd Oct King Richard II, landed at Waterford, with an army of 30,000 foot and 4,000 horse, and having received the submission of most of the Irish of Leinster, marched to Dublin, where he continued till the beginning of summer.
Richard II defeats the Leinster Irish, more of the rebel Normans and Irish Kings submit to him.
3rd Feb John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and father of King Henry IV, died.
Richard II is deposed by his cousin Henry Bollingbrooke Duke of Lancaster, is crowned Henry IV.
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AD 1400


11th July An armed band of Dublin citizens led by John Drake marched from the town against the O'Birnes and other rebels, at Bray they killed according to one report 4,000, while another states 493. Daniel O'Birne, surrendered the castle of Mackenigan to the King.

The citizens of Dublin fitted out a fleet of barks, in June, invaded Scotland at St. Ninians, after this they sailed along the channel, and made a descent into Wales, brought from thence the shrine of St. Cubie, which on their return was deposited in Christchurch. Both these actions were in aid of King Henry IV. against whom the Scots had marched an army into England, and the Welsh under the conduct of Owen Glendower, had rebelled.
The citizens of Dublin marched out their forces on Corpus Christi day, they were joined by a body of the country people in the neighbourhood of the town, they advanced against the Irish, whom they routed, slew many of them, took two standards, brought home the heads of those they had slain, and fixed them on the city gates.
Thomas Butler, prior of Kilmainham, Lord deputy to the duke of Lancaster, Lord lieutenant, marched out of Dublin with 1,500 kerns into the country of the O-Birnes, and was joined by a band of citizens under the command of Robert Gallen, mayor of Dublin. Upon their approach to the enemy, 800 of the kerns deserted to the Irish, it might have proved fatal to the Lord deputy; who by that means made an orderly retreat, with the loss only of John Derpatrick.
20th March Henry IV of England dies at the age of 45 after a 13 year reign. 1413 It partly fulfilled a prophecy saying that he would die in Jerusalem. He died in Westminster Abbey's Jerusalem Chamber.
The mayor of Dublin marched out with the Lord lieutenant into the County of Wicklow, where they razed Castle Keivin.
2nd June King Henry V of England marries Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI, King of France.
6th Dec Henry VI was born he was to become the youngest King of England acceding to the throne at 296 days of age.
31st August Henry V dies at Bois de Vincennes in France
9th of June, upon the application of James Butler, Earl of Ormond, Lord deputy, it was ordered in council that the mayor and citizens of Dublin should have in prest the sum of £40l. to enable them to aid the Lord deputy in an expedition against the McMahon's, Magennis's, O'Donnell's, and other Irish enemies then in rebellion.
6th Nov Henry VI was crowned King of England, seven years after acceding to the throne at the age of eight months. Two years later, in Paris, he was also crowned King of France.
Henry VI offers a £10 to every liege man of the King . Who will build a castle in Dublin, Meath Kildare and Louth within ten years.  
30th May Joan of Arc, the French peasant girl who became a national heroine leading French troops against the English, was burnt at the stake in Rouen for heresy.
7th Dec Henry VI of England was crowned King of France, in Paris.
First Franciscan house of Observant's founded at Quinn Co Clare by the MacNamaras.
20th Feburary: James I, King of Scotland, was assassinated by a group of dissident nobles led by the Earl of Atholl. He is succeeded by his son, James II
20th Feburary Boy King Edward VI was crowned at Westminster.
Large number died in Dublin of a plague and famine this year, which afflicted all parts of the King dom.
27th June Irish born Jack Cade led a 40,000 strong demonstration march from Kent to London to protest against laws introduced by King Henry VI of England. Cade was later beheaded for treason.
2nd Oct King Richard III, England's last Plantagenet King, was born.
28th Jan Birth of Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty in England. He restored order after the Wars of the Roses.
A mint was opened in the castle of Dublin where not only silver but brass money was coined
The river Liffey at Dublin was entirely dry for the space of two minutes.
29th March Over 28,000 people were killed in the battle of Towton, North Yorkshire during the War of the Roses (Lancaster against York). The Lancastrians, under Henry VI, were crushed and the throne was claimed by Edward IV and with it The Lordship of Ireland..
Plague breaks out in Meath Leinster and Dublin.
Bunratty Castle Co Clare is completed by Sean Finn MacNamaras
Henry VI is reinstalled to the English throne
21st May Henry VI, King of England, was murdered in the Tower of London where he had been imprisoned by Edward IV, who then resumed the throne.
The plague again wasted Dublin this year.
Gearoid Mor Fitzgerald, eighth Earl of Kildare is appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.
April : Edward IV dies he is succeeded by his son Edward V.
Edward V is deposed and replaced by Richard III
The plague raged this year in Dublin
Henry Tudor kills Richard III at the battle of Bosworth and becomes Henry VII
17th Jan After 30 years of civil war the Royal Houses of Lancaster and York were united by the marriage of Henry VII to the eldest daughter of Edward IV.
The first recorded use of firearms in Ireland. ?
This year the first musket or firearms, that (perhaps) were ever seen in Ireland, were brought to Dublin from Germany, and six of them, were presented to Gerald, Earl of Kildare, then Lord deputy.
Hugh Roe O'Donnell took and demolished Belfast Castle plundering its contents.
28th June The birth of Henry VIII, King of England and second son of Henry VII. He married six times, beheaded two wives, broke away from the Catholic church to form the Church of England, executed Catholics who failed to recognize the church and executed Protestants who complained that he should execute more Catholics! Yet he still managed to remain a popular King .

The Lord Mayor of Galway hanged his son Walter Lynch for murder. Giving us the term Lynch Law.
Edward Poynings appointed Lord Deputy. He introduced a law stating that all laws passed by Irish parliament had to be approved by the King this was not revoked until 1782
First reference to 'The Pale' in an official document.
There were great shortages this year through most of Ireland, but especially in Ulster In and around Dublin it was not so great; for a peck of wheat, almost four English bushels, sold for 10s and malt for 8s.

AD 1500

26th Sept. The Earl of Kildare 'Garret More Fitzgerald' burns Belfast castle.
Irish Lords rise against the Earl of Kildare.
The prior of Kilmainham attempted forcibly to take some loads of hay from the Dominicans of Dublin. But the mayor and commons assembling together in favour of the friar's, rescued the hay, and drove the prior back to Kilmainham
Henry VIII. Becomes King of England
10th April:The birth of James V of Scotland, who allied his country with France against the English. He became King at the age of 17 months.
Garret More Fitzgerald sacked Belfast for a second time. He then attacked Glenarm and wasted the surrounding lands
Conflict between the Butlers Earl s of Ormond and the Fitzgeralds Earl s of Kildare in Dublin.
Garret More Fitzgerald the Lord Deputy & 8th Earl of Kildare died of gunshot wounds. His son, the 9th Earl became the Lord Deputy. He fell foul of political intregue and was arrested in Feb 1534 and taken to the Tower of London where he died on 2nd Sept. 1534. His son Silken Thomas was executed on 3rd February 1537 at Tilburn.
The Earl of Kildare's deputy, assisted by the citizens, invaded the O'Tools, and slew Shane O' Tool the chieftain, and sent his head as a present to John Rochford, mayor of Dublin.
Dundrum castle Co Down is recaptured from the MacGuinness clan.
28th Jan The 'Diet of Worms' (diet meaning assembly and Worms being a small town in Germany), at which Protestant reformer Martin Luther was declared an outlaw by the Roman Catholic church.
The O'Mores of Leix confederating with the O'Connors, O'Carrolls, invade the English pale.
11th Oct Pope Leo X conferred the title of 'Defender of the Faith' (Fidei Defensor) on England's Henry VIII for his book supporting Catholic principles.
The Earl of Kildare defeats Aodh Buidhe O'Neill of Clandeboye and captures Belfast and Carrickfergus Castle's
7th March When King Henry VIII's divorce request was denied by the Pope, Henry declared himself (not the Pope) as the supreme head of the English church.
24th May A list of heretical books was drawn up in London. Tyndale's Bible was burnt.
5th January Pope Clemens VII forbade English King Henry VIII to re-marry. The event led to the creation of the Church of England.
25th Jan The Bishop of Lichfield secretly married King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn, the second of Henry's six wives. She had, ten days before, discovered that she was pregnant.
The Kildare rebellion.
28th July The English Archbishop of Dublin is murdered on Clontarf beach by supporters of Silken Thomas
A new coinage for Ireland is struck called 'The coin of the harp'
2nd Sept. London. The 9th Earl of Kildare dies, he is succeeded by his son Silken Thomas, although the title was not confirmed by the English crown.
William Skeffington captures Maynooth Castle the seat of the Fitzgeralds of Kildare and massacres its garrison. Becoming known as 'The pardon of Maynooth'
Feb The 9th Earl of Kildare was arrested and taken to the Tower of London where he died on 2nd Sept.
15th Jan Henry VIII assumed the title 'Supreme Head of the Church'.
The estates of the Earl dom of Kildare are confiscated,. Lord Grey is appointed Lord Deputy.
7th January Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII of England and mother of Mary I, died.
14th April Henry VIII dissolved the 'Reformation Parliament' resulting in the suppression of the monasteries.
12th May Sir Francis Weston, Mark Smeaton and several other alleged lovers of Anne Boleyn, wife of King Henry VIII, were executed.
30th May Eleven days after he had his second wife Anne Boleyn beheaded, King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, former lady-in-waiting to Anne.
8th JuneThe English Parliament mMet and settled the succession on the future children of Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. The Princesses Mary and Elizabeth were declared illegitimate.
6th Oct William Tyndale, English religious reformer and translator of the Bible's New Testament, was strangled and burned at the stake for heresy.
3rd Feb Silken Thomas son of the 9th Earl of Kildare was executed along with five of his uncles at Tilburn, London.
12th Oct Edward VI, the only son of Henry VIII by his third wife Jane Seymour was born. Jane died 13 days after giving birth to him.
9th July England's King Henry VIII had his six-month marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled. She was nicknamed The Flanders Mare.
The Parliament of 1541 was attended for the first time by native chieftains as well as by the Lords of the Pale, Henry's title of Lord of Ireland, which had been conferred by the papacy, was changed to King of Ireland.
11th Feb Catherine Howard, the fifth queen consort of Henry VIII, was confined in the Tower of London to be executed three days later. Henry learned that Catherine had had several affairs before their marriage and had Parliament immediately, declaring it treason for an unchaste woman to marry the king. The night before her execution, Catherine spent many hours practising how to lay her head upon the block.
13th Feb Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, was executed for adultery.
8th Dec The birth of Mary Queen of Scots, Scottish Queen who ascended to the throne aged seven. A rebellion led to her abdication and later Elizabeth I imprisoned her for the plot to restore the Roman Catholic religion and to take the throne from her.
28 Oct. James Butler the ninth earl of Ormond along with 17 of his party were poisoned at a banquet in Ely House, London, 28 Oct. 1546
28th Jan Henry VIII dies, exactly 100 tears after the birth of his father Henry VII, he is succeeded by the boy King Edward VI. England and Ireland were ruled by the nobility of England.
21st Jan Parliament passed the first of four Acts of Uniformity, the first requiring the exclusive use of the Book of Common Prayer in all public services of the Anglican Church.
The Jesuit Order was by St. Ignatius, founded in Ireland in 1561 by Father David Wolfe
9th June The Church of England adopted the Book of Common Prayer, compiled by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer.
The Scots carry out a massacre on Tory Island Donegal.
7th June Edward VI devalues the Irish currency to combat inflation.
9th July Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed queen of England in succession to Edward VI. Her reign lasted only nine days. Her successor was Mary I.
Mary Tudor becomes queen of England.
25th Jan Sir Thomas Wyatt gathered an army of 4000 men in Kent at the start of his rebellion against Queen Mary. His fellow conspirators were timid and inept and he eventually surrendered. He was executed and his body 'quartered' on 11th April.
The Fitzgeralds are reinstated to the Earl dom of Kildare.
29th June Bishop Edward Staples of Meath is deprived of his diocese for being married.
16th Oct English bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burnt at the stake for heresy.
21st March England's first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer was burnt at the stake as a heretic, under the Catholic Queen Mary I, also know as "Bloody Mary".
Counties Louth and Offaly are planted with English settlers.
10th July Co Offaly. The Earl of Sussex begins a campaign against the O'Connors.
27th October. The Earl of Sussex destroys Armagh City in his campaign against Shane O'Neill.
7th Jan English forces were ousted from the French port of Calais, led by the Duke of Guise. The town's burghers had surrendered to an invading English army in 1346.
Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England.
Shane O'Neill has Matthew, baron of Dungannon a possible rival for the Earldom, assassinated.
The MacQuillan and O'Neill clans defeated by the MacDonnell's at Orra Bog in Co Antrim's glens.
15th Jan Elizabeth I was crowned Queen of England at the age of 26. She was the daughter of Henry VIII's second wife, Anne Boleyn.
18th Dec Queen Elizabeth I of England sent aid to the Scottish Lords to drive the French from Scotland.
Shane O'Neill is undisputed Ruler of Ulster, from "Drogheda to the Erne."
The Rebellion of Shane O'Neill, caused by an internal row amongst the Gaels, over the succession of the O'Neill clan.
Father David Wolfe, S.J., founded the Jesuit mission in Ireland.
Shane O'Neill lays waste Co Fermanagh ruled by the Maguire's.
Elizabethan Wars in Ireland.
Shane O;Neill submitted to Queen Elizabeth I in January.
March: Inquiry into the behavior of the Earl of Sussex's troops.
April: The Earl of Sussex campaigns against Shane O'Neill.
11th September Shane O'Neill submits to Sussex.
Shane O'Neill defeats the the MacDonnell's at Glenhesk Co Antrim.
Shane O'Neill ignoring his oath of allegiance to Queen Elizabeth launches a campaign to bring the whole of Ulster under his control.
March: The Earl of Desmond is put in Dublin castle by Sir Henry Sidney the Lord Deputy after being arrested at Kilmallock Co Limerick.
Shane O'Neill is killed by the O'Donnell's, some historians claim this was planned by the English.
December: The Earl of Desmond is sent to London a prisoner.
The English crown seize all the O'Neill lands in Ulster.
(August 1572 ?) Sir Thomas Smith tried to bring English settlers into the Ards Peninsula and County Down.
25th Feburary Queen Elizabeth I was excommunicated by Pope Pius V. He declared her a usurper for her persecution of Roman Catholics in England.
June: John Kearney's book 'Gaelic Alphabet& Catechism' is the first Irish book to be printed in Ireland.
15th Jan Thomas Howard, the Fourth Duke of Norfolk, was tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. He was later executed at the Tower of London.
August ? Around a hundred prospective colonists disembarked at Strangford village in County Down. Led by Sir Thomas Smyths inexperienced son, the expedition moved north towards Newtownards only to find that Sir Brian MacPhelim was burning any building which might give shelter to the English. Smith had to seek refuge in Ringhaddy castle and it was in vain that he appealed to Dublin for help. He was killed by his Irish servants the following year.
The Earl of Essex was granted Clandeboye estate by Queen Elizabeth I he arrived in Carrickfergus on 16th August with plans to colonize Ulster.
The Earl of Essex kills several hundred Irishmen at a banquet he holds in Belfast.
22th July Sir James Norrie & Francis Drake, acting on orders of the Earl of Essex takes Rathlin Island (Co Antrim) and massacres the entire inhabitants, men women and children some six hundred people in all.
6th Sept: Sorley Boy MacDonnell attacks the town of Carrickfergus, in revenge for Rathlin, the fail to enter the town but kill 100 defenders and carry off all the towns animals.
The Earl of Essex was executed.
15th June: Francis Drake anchored the Golden Hind just north of what would one day be San Francisco Bay, California and proclaimed England's sovereignty over an area he named New Albion.
600 Papal troops land at Smerwick, establish themselves at Dun an Oir.
The papal force surrender and are massacred by forces led by Sir Walter Raleigh and Lord Grey.
English forces under Sir William Pelham sacked the town of Abbeyfeale Co Limerick and destroyed the Cistercian Abbey.
25th August Co Wicklow Lord Grey is defeated by Munster rebels at Glenmalure It was the worst defeat by an English army in Ireland, who were completely routed with losses of between 500–1,000 officers and men, including Sir Peter Carew.
Plantation of Munster begins.
1st Dec Edward Campion (later St. Edward) and three other Jesuits were martyred. He was tried on a charge of treason for promoting Catholicism and was hanged in London.
Pope Gregory X111, updates the calendar there was a difference of 10 days between the old Julian calendar, many people objected claiming they had been robbed of 10 days of their life.
The Lord Deputy, Sir John Perrott marked out the boundaries of Co Leitrim.
Dermot O' Hurley, archbishop of Cashel is executed for alleged complicity in the Munster rebellion.
Following the death of Gerald Fitzgerald 14th Earl of Desmond in rebellion the crown seizes 245,000 ha (600,000 acres)
Scottish mercenaries hired by the Burkes are massacred together with their families, by Richard Bermingham
4th Nov Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the death sentence on Mary Queen of Scots.
1st Feb Under pressure from her Council, Queen Elizabeth I of England signed the warrant authorising the execution of Mary Queen of Scots.
8th Feb.: Mary Queen of Scots beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle after 19 years imprisonment.
8th August In a nine-hour battle off Gravesend the Spanish Armada sent by Philip of Spain, to conquer England was defeated.
11th September at least 25 of the Spanish Armada Ships wrecked on the coast of Ireland.
18 (26)? October the Gerona shipwrecked at Dunluce Co Antrim.
4th November Sir William Fitzwilliam begins a search for Spanish castaways.
Hugh O'Neill Earl of Tyrone elopes with and marries, Mable daughter of Nicholas Bagnell, the commissioner of Ulster.
Grace O'Malley the pirate queen of Mayo visits the court of Elizabeth I.
Start of the nine year war the O'Neill's and O'Donnells try to remove the English from Ulster.
2nd Feb.: The English led by John Dowdall and George Bingham capture Enniskillen Co Fermanagh.
Hugh O'Donnell defeated an English army that was attempting to relieve the beseiged garrison at xxxxx this came to be known as 'Ford of the Biscuits' because of the food scattered in the river after the battle.
June: Hugh Roe O'Donnell, Lord of Tyrconnell besieges Enniskillen
Battle between Hugh O'Neill and his brother in law Sir Henry Bagnell at Clontibret Co Monaghan, Bagenell is killed.
James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald led a revolt which was crushed by the English army.
October: A Spanish fleet bound for Ireland is wrecked in the Bay of Biscay.
Late June: Sir John Chichester is appointed governor of Carrickfergus, Co Antrim.
4th Nov: Sir John Chichester was defeated and killed in the battle of Altfracken near Ballycarry Co Antrim by Sir James MacDonnell, Chichester's headless body was buried in St Nicholas Church Carrickfergus.
Hugh O'Neill defeated an English army led by his brother in law Sir Henry Bagnell, at Yellow Ford on the River Blackwater in County Armagh, Bagnell was killed.
12th March Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex is appointed Lord Lieutenant.
The Earl of Essex is defeated by Owen O' Moore, near Ballyknockan Co Laois.
Autumn Sir Arthur Chichester is appointed head of the English garrison at Carrickfergus Co Antrim.
7th September the Earl of Essex and Lord Tyrone (Hugh O'Neill) meet on the Louth-Monaghan border to discuss a truce.
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AD 1600

August: Chichester lays waste land within a 20 mile radius of Carrickfergus, killing everything and one he finds, many of those not murdered die later of starvation.
2nd Oct.Lord Mountjoy's army trying to move north into Ulster through the Moyry Pass (The Gap of the North) is repulsed by the army of Hugh O'Neill, on the 9th Oct Mountjoy retreated to Dundalk.
25th Feb.: The Earl of Essex is executed for treason.
27th Dec: In the Battle of Kinsale Hugh O'Neill (Earl of Tyrone) and his Spanish supporters are defeated by Queen Elizabeth's army.
Dublin: The new testament is translated into Gaelic.
September In an attempt to subdue the native Irish in Tyrone Lord Mountjoy desimates the area around Tullaghoge Fort and destroyes the coronation stone of the O'Neill's.
23rd March Queen Elizabeth I dies in Richmond Palace, London after a 45 year reign.
With the accession of James I. to the English throne, enforcement of English Law begins in Ireland.
30th May Sir George Carew is appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.
31th March The treaty of Mellifont is signed in which the O'Neills surrender.
October. Arthur Chichester is appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.
5th Nov Guy Fawkes was arrested when 30 barrels of gunpowder, camouflaged with coal, were discovered in the cellar under The Houses of Parliament in London. Robert Catesby’s small band of Catholic zealots who planned to blow up James I and Parliament were only arrested after Fawkes revealed their names when tortured on the rack. The 'Gunpowder Plot' is commemorated each year in Britain on 'Guy Fawkes' Night'
13th November Chichester issues mandates that all Catholics attend the established church services.
30th Jan Sir Everard Digby, Thomas Winter, John Grant and Thomas Bates who, along with others, had tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament in November 1605 were hanged, drawn and quartered for their part in the 'Gunpowder Plot'.
31st Jan Guy Fawkes, one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot, was hanged, drawn and quartered.
Settlement of Scots led by Hugh Montgomery in Ards Peninsula Co Down.
14th Sept The leading Gaelic families of Ireland led by Hugh O'Neill leave for the continent from Rathmullen Co Donegal, in what comes to be known as the Fight of the Earls.
The plantation of Ulster begins in earnest, Montgomery (Ards), Hill (North Down), Hamilton (North West Down), Annesleu (Mourne).
Derry becomes Londonderry when James I grants all the lands between the rivers Foyle and Bann to the company of London merchants. See The History of Derry.
20th July Hugh O'Neill died in Rome.
29th Oct Sir Walter Raleigh, English seafarer, courtier, writer and once a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I (he named Virginia after her) was beheaded at Whitehall. He had been falsely accused of treason and sentenced to death, commuted to imprisonment. He was released after 13 years to try and find the legendary gold of El Dorado. He failed, and returned to an undeserved fate.
The plantation of Leitrim, Longford, Laois, West Meath and Offaly.
19th Nov The ship Mayflower arrived at Cape Cod, America. Its 87 passengers were members of a Protestant sect, known as The Pilgrim Fathers.
9th June British Forces made a treaty with the 'Potomac River tribes' proposing a toast to perpetual friendship. The Indian chief and 200 men then dropped dead from poisoned wine.
June The village of Baltimore in Co Cork was attacked by Algerian pirates about 100 people were carried off and two killed, it is thought that a local person may have arranged the raid.
Compilation of the Annals of the Four Masters.
8th Sept Sir Hugh Montgomery receives a Scottish state funeral in Newtownards Priory
9th Sept 140 Presbyterians from County Down embarked at Groomsport on the Eagle Wing for New England, bad weather forced the voyage to be abandoned.
7th July Robert Sidney was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Irish form the Confederate Catholics of Ireland at Kilkenny. The 1641 Rebellion begins. Read about The 1641 Rebellion from Eleanor Hull's History of Ireland
21st Nov: A force of Ulster rebels besieges Droheda Co Louth.
November: Over 80 Protestants die when rebels attack Portadown bridge Co Armagh.
The Confederation of Kilkenny.
19th March The Adventurers Act passed in English parliment The Act invited members of the public to invest £200 for which they would receive 1,000 acres of lands that would be confiscated from Irish landowners
Civil war begins in Ireland.
10th Jan Execution of William Laud, the archbishop of Canterbury. He was beheaded on Tower Hill after being found ‘guilty of endeavouring to subvert the laws, to overthrow the Protestant religion, and to act as an enemy to Parliament’. The next archbishop was not appointed until fifteen years later, with the Restoration of Charles II.
14th June At the Battle of Naseby in Northamptonshire. Parliamentary forces commanded by Oliver Cromwell despite being heavily outnumbered. defeated the Royalist troops of Charles I in the English Cival War.
5th June Confederate forces under Owen Roe O'Neill are victorious in the Battle of Benburb.
4th June Roundhead troops capture King Charles I of England ending the English Civil War with the Royalists defeated.
30th Jan: The executioner Richard Brandon beheaded King Charles I at Whitehall. The courts deemed him a 'tyrant, traitor, murderer and enemy of the people'
9th Feb The funeral of the executed King Charles I. His personal dignity during his trial and execution had won him much sympathy and he was buried at Windsor rather than Westminster Abbey to avoid the possibility of public disorder at his funeral.
17th March Oliver Cromwell abolished the position of King of England and the House of Lords and declared England a Commonwealth.
15th Aug: English soldier & statesman Oliver Cromwell landed at Dublin.
11th Sept 2,600 defenders of Droheda in County Louth massacred by Cromwell's troops.
11th Oct: Cromwell's troops storm Wexford City killing 2,000 soldiers and civilians.
6th Nov Owen Roe O'Neill died in Cloughoughter Castle near Lough Oughter, County Cavan.
2nd Feb Birth of Nell (Eleanor) Gwynne, former orange seller at Drury Lane Theatre, who became a comedy actress and later mistress of Charles II, by whom she had two sons.
Catholic landowners exiled by Cromwell to Connaught.
1st January Charles II is crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
17th Oct Charles II was defeated at the Battle of Worcester, after the battle he hid from Cromwell's forces in an Oak tree before fleeing to France.
26th Nov Henry Irton Lord Deputy of Ireland son in law of Oliver Cromwell died of fever. After the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 his body was exumed and mutilated in a postumous execution on the orders of Charles II.
Disease famine and war has reduced the population of Ireland to 500,000.
Cromwell victorious, Irish landowners evicted, land given to his supporters and settlers.11,000,000 Acres confiscated and divided between Cromwell's supporters.
Over 60,000 ? Irish Catholics had been sent as slaves to Barbados, and other islands in the Caribbean.
29th May Charles II marched into London and was restored to the throne, 11 years after the execution of his father Charles I.
30th Jan Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, was exhumed and formally executed, after having been dead for two years!
23rd April Charles II was crowned King of England, completing the restoration of the monarchy. His father, Charles I, had been beheaded by Oliver Cromwell following the Civil War.
2nd Feb British forces captured New Amsterdam, the centre of the Dutch colony in North America. The trading settlement on the island of Manhattan was renamed New York in honour of the Duke of York, its new governor.
6th Feb Birth of Queen Anne, the last Stuart ruler and second daughter of James II. She bore Prince George of Denmark 17 children, but 16 died in infancy and the remaining child died when aged 12. Her desire for national unity led to the union of the English and Scottish parliaments (1707).
The population of London is decimated by the plague 100,000 people one fifth of the population are said to have died.
6th Sept: Fire swept through London destroying 160 hectares (400 acres) of the city. 39 churches and 13,000 houses have been destroyed.
12th June The future King James I of England was forced to resign as Lord High Admiral because of his Catholic faith.
Over 6,000 Irish boys and women sold as slaves since England gained control of Jamaica.
4th Nov: Prince William of Orange (Holland) married a niece of Charles II (England) Mary age 15.
6th Dec: The Roman Catholic primate Archbishop Oliver Plunkett is arrested for allegedly plotting against the crown.
15th Nov: Peter Talbot, the Roman Catholic archbishop, dies a prisoner in Dublin castle.
4th March King Charles II granted a Royal Charter to William Penn, entitling him to establish a colony in North America called Pennsylvania.
1st July: Oliver Plunkett archbishop of armagh executed at Tyburn. (London).
12th June The Rye House Plot, to assassinate English king Charles II and his brother James, Duke of York, was discovered.
23 June William Penn, the English Quaker, signed a treaty with the Indian chiefs of the Lenni Lenade Tribe in an attempt to ensure peace in his new American colony, Pennsylvania.
6th Feb Charles II, King of Great Britain and Ireland, died after several days of revelry with his concubines and his favourite mistresses.
In France The Treaty of Nantes is revoked, thousand of Huguenots come to Ireland.
August: The first issue of the Dublin News Letter, published by Joseph Ray.
6th Feb.: Charles II dies after a short illness.
Charles' 51 year old Catholic brother The Duke of York becomes King James II
9th Jan: Henry Hyde the Duke of Claredon is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
12th Feb.: The Earl of Tyrconnell is sworn in as Lord lieutenant.
11th Dec James II was forced to abdicate after William of Orange landed in England on November 5th.
11th April: William II and Mary II were crowned joint monarchs by the Bishop of London. The Archbishop of Canterbury refused to officiate.
James II lands at Kinsale.
20th April: The siege of Londonderry began when supporters of James II attacked the city.
James II's sets up a Parliament in Dublin and promises to restore all lands confiscated since 1641.
30th July The Mountjoy broke through the boom across the river Foyle, ending the siege of Londonderry.
August 13th. Marshal Schomberg landed at Groomsport Co Down with 10,000 thousand men to defend the Williamite cause in Ireland.
22nd Aug About fifty ships anchor off Carrickfergus and bombard the castle and town.
27th Aug 2,500 men in the castle surrender.
Saturday 14th June William III lands with his army at Carrickfergus (Co Antrim).
1st July Battle of the Boyne (Co Meath).
12th July The Battle of Aughrim, (Co Galway).
The siege of Athlone.
Siege and surrender of Limerick Catholic army defeated.
3rd Oct Treaty of Limerick signed.
22nd December Patrick Sarsfield & 11,000 defeated soldiers sail for France the so called 'Wild Geese'
The Penal Law introduced.

13th Feb The massacre of the MacDonalds at Glencoe in Scotland was carried out by English forces led by John Campbell, Earl of Breadalbane.

28th Dec Mary II, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland, died from small pox, leaving William III to reign alone.
The Bishop banishment Act. All bishops with ecclesiastical jurisdiction ordered to leave the country.

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AD 1700

17th Sept King James II of England died whilst in exile in France.
21st February William III thrown from his horse. He died two weeks later.
Act introduced prohibiting Catholics from buying land or inheriting it from Protestants. Catholic landowners had to divide their property equally between their male heirs.
15th Jan The Act of Union was passed, merging the English and Scottish parliaments and paving the way for the new country of Great Britain.
Catholics hold 7% of land in Ireland.
Turnpike trusts were first established by an Act of George II. The Trusts levied a toll on road users to support maintenance works.
The first canal in Ireland is begun it ran from Lough Neagh to Newry in Co Down
24th May John Wesley first attended evensong at St Paul’s Cathedral, London, then went on to a meeting at Aldersgate where he experienced his conversion. This was the start of Wesley’s Methodism, and over 250 years later there are 54 million Methodists in 60 countries.
Severe winter followed by much shortage.
Famine which killed an estimated 300,000 people
28th Sept. The first cargo of Tyrone coal arrived in the port of Dublin carried by the Cope and the Boulter of Lough Neagh via the newly opened Newry canal.
18th Oct Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver's Travels, died aged 77.
8th Jan Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied Stirling. Such early successes would prove short-lived for the pretender to the throne.
17th Jan ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’ and his Highlanders won the battle of Falkirk. It was to be their last victory in the 'forty-five' Jacobite uprising, as three months later they were defeated at Culloden.
Britain & Ireland adopt the Gregorian Calendar 02/09/1752 is followed by 14/09/1752
25th Jan Birth of Robert Burns, Scotland’s national poet. His birthday is celebrated as ‘Burns Night’ by Scotsmen all over the world.
Arthur O'Neill plays the O'Brien "Brian Boru's Harp", through the streets of Limerick.
21st Feb.: A French force under Commodore Thurot successfully attack Carrickfergus castle
18th June: The birth of Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquis of Londonderry, born in Ireland who, as foreign secretary to Lord Liverpool, organized the coalition against Napoleon. The family home was Mountstewart Co Down
16th December. Samuel Adams and 150 ‘Sons of Liberty’ disguised as Mohawk Indians threw £18,000 worth of tea into Boston Harbour. The event became known as 'The Boston Tea Party'.
Henry Grattan, becomes leader of "Patriot Party".
6th Aug Daniel O'Connell born at Derrynane,Co. Kerry. Received Early schooling from Parish Priest, then sent to France to receive further instruction at St. Omer and Douai.
4th July The American Congress voted for independence from Britain.
3rd Jan George Washington defeats the British at the Battle of Princeton.
April: The American privateer 'Ranger' under John Paul Jones captures the 'Drake' in a sea battle off Carrickfergus Co Antrim.
The first boat begins service on the Grand Canal between Dublin and Ballyhealey
3 July The Irish Brigade in the service of France helped to capture the Caribbean island of Grenada on this day. They were part of an expeditionary force of some 2,300 men tasked with seizing the island from the British garrison based there.
19th Oct The American War of Independence came to an end when British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered his 8,000 troops to George Washington at Yorktown, in Virginia, after a three week siege.
A Colonel Conyngham, presents the Brian Boru Harp to Trinity College Dublin
The Irish Parliament began its 18 years of independence
Ballooning craze hits Ireland when Richard Crosbie makes first balloon flight at Ranelagh Co Dublin
The first iron works in Ireland was set up at Arigna in Co Roscommon by three brothers, O'Reilly, locally mined coal was used, the venture closed in 1808.
17th Jan A British fleet of eleven ships and 800 convicts landed at Botany Bay, Australia. They created the first British penal colony, in Port Jackson - Sydney.
31st Jan Death, in Rome, of Charles Edward Stuart (‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’). After his father's death, Charles was recognised as 'King Charles III' by his supporters.
First mail coach service's from Dublin to Cork and Belfast started
Outbreak of the French revolution.
30th Jan The first purpose-built lifeboat, The Original, was launched on the River Tyne at South Shields
October Woolf Tone Rowan Hamilton, Napper Tandy and Henry Joy McCracken founded the society of United Irishmen
The Belfast Harp Festival records some of the Harp music of Ireland.
Catholic Relief Act passed.
January. Lord Fitzwilliam, an Irish landowner appointed Lord Lieutenant. He planned to bring about full Catholic emancipation.
January 24: Protestants of Belfast petition parliament for repeal of all penal and restrictive statutes against Catholics (petition presented, 2 February.)
February 12: Grattan introduces Catholic relief bill in House of Commons.
May 5: House of Commons rejects Grattan?s Catholic relief bill, by 155 to 84
May 10: United Irishmen of Ulster secretly meet in Belfast and adopt new constitution.
May 24: New constituition for United Irish Society accepted by existing clubs
June 13: Tone embarks at Belfast for USA
September 7: Lawrence O'Connor, schoolmaster and Defender leader, hanged at Naas, Co Kildare.
21st Sept The Battle of the Diamond takes place in Co Armagh between Catholics Defenders and Protestants Peep O Day Boys, 30 Catholics were killed, no Protestants are reported killed.
As a result of The Battle of the Diamond The Orange Order was formed.
October circa 1: Catholic seminary, Royal College of St Patrick, opened at Maynooth, Co Kildare.
The Insurrection Act passed.
12 July The Orange Order's first ever marches celebrating the "Battle of the Boyne" and they took place on in Portadown, Lurgan and Waringstown.
15th Dec Woolf Tone arrives in Bantry bay with 43 French ships and 15,000 troops. Bad weather forced them back to France
The Spanish fleet was defeated off Cape St. Vincent by Admiral John Jervis and Captain Horatio Nelson
22nd Feb Over 1,000 French troops attempted to invade Britain and landed at Fishguard, but were soon captured by the brave ladies of the town. No other foreign force has managed to invade mainland Britain since.
March to October. Ulster is disarmed. The Yeomanry is formed from Protestant tenants and towns people under the command of the gentry.
Oct 11th A second attempt by the French to invade Ireland was also defeated
14th October. William Orr a United Irishman was executed at Carrickfergus, his comrades could see no alternative but armed insurrection
Arrest of Leinster Directory of United Irishmen
May 23 The United Irishmen Rebellion began.
May 29 Massacre at Gibbet Rath on the Curragh (Co Kildare)
Arrest and death of Lord Edward Fitzgerald.
June 7th Battle of Antrim
5th United Irishmen defeated at New Ross
9th United Irishmen defeated at Arklow
9th The Battle of Saintfield County Down
12-13th Battle of Ballynahinch (Co Down)
21st Battle of Vinegar Hill. United Irishmen defeated
August 22nd French troops landed at Killala and won a striKing victory at Castlebar,
French forces defeated on 8th at Ballinamuck in County Longford.
A French naval force was overwhelmed in Lough Swilly, Wolfe Tone captured.
Death of Wolfe Tone.

AD 1800

The population of Ireland is almost twice as large as that of the United States.
2nd Feb The first parliament of Great Britain in which Ireland was represented.
1st January The Act of Union passed uniting England and Ireland.
The Grand Canal reaches Edenderry in Co Offaly.
Robert Emmett's rising, trial and execution.
6th Feb The world's first locomotive, converted from a steam-hammer power source and developed by Cornish engineer, Richard Trevithick, ran on a line near Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
Mail coach service from Belfast to Armagh started.
19th June: Curwen's Act was passed in Britain, to prevent the sale of parliamentary seats, thus decreasing the number of seats which the British government could manipulate for its regular supporters.
22nd July The Duke of Wellington defeated the French in the Battle of Salamanca, in Spain.
18th October. Ten workmen were swept to their deaths of the Tusker Rock Co Wexford while constructing the lighthouse.
Apprentice boys of Derry formed.
8th Jan Britain lost the last battle it ever fought against the US in the War of 1812. General Sir Edward Pakenham and his men were defeated at New Orleans.
1st February Daniel O'Connell kills John D'Esterre a member of Dublin corporation in a duel.
28th March Dublin The Thames, a paddle steamer makes the first crossing from Dublin to London carrying passengers and cargo.
18th June: The Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon Bonaparte suffered defeat at the hands of the Duke of Wellington, who was born in Dublin, bringing an end to the Napoleonic era of European history. Wellington once famously rematked "Just because you were born in a stable, it doesn't make you a horse"
Carlo Bianconi started his coach transport business, with a service between Clonmel and Cahir
7 July The great Irish playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan died in the City of London in impoverished circumstances.
The Rob Roy built by Ritchie and MacLaine of Belfast became the first steam vessel to make the crossing between Belfast and Scotland.
17th Jan Birth of poet and novelist Anne Brontë. She was the youngest of six children of Patrick and Maria Brontë. The Brontë Museum is in the former parsonage at Haworth, West Yorkshire with one near Rathfriland Co Down.
29th Jan King George III died, aged 81, at Windsor Castle. At the time he was the longest reigning monarch (over 59 years).
3rd Feb Birth of Elizabeth Blackwell, in Bristol, who became the first woman doctor in the US where her parents emigrated.
George IV visited Powerscourt Co Wicklow almost fatally
19 people were drowned when a boat carrying a coffin overturned on its way to Devenish Island in Lough Erne.
Unlawful Societies (Ireland) act passed. Catholic Association dissolves as does the Grand Lodge of the Orange Order. The law is ignored by the Orange lodges who continue to parade.
5th July Daniel O’Connell won the Parliamentary seat of County Clare in a bye –election
21st March The Duke of Wellington, aged 60, fought a bloodless duel with the Earl of Winchelsea. The reason for the duel was the Duke’s support of Catholic emancipation. Wellington was both Prime Minister and leader of the Tory Party at the time.
13th April The British Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation Act, lifting restrictions imposed on Catholics at the time of Henry VIII.
The Tithe War
The first Land Act introduced.
The national schools system begun.
The first railway in Ireland was built between Dublin and Kingstown (Dùn Laoghaire)
4 July The Dublin Police Act of 1836 established the Dublin Metropolitan Police on this day. It was set up to regularise the policing of Ireland’s Capital City and was based on a template of Sir Robert Peel’s London Metropolitan Police.
20th June: On the death of William IV, Queen Victoria, aged 18, succeeded to the throne.
22nd April The British steamer Sirius became the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean from England to New York. The voyage took 18 days and 10 hours
28th June Queen Victoria is crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbey in London at the age of 19.
The poor law introduced.
The Night of the Big Wind January 6/7 (See our fact file for other similar data,)
10th Jan Sir Rowland Hill introduced the Penny Post to Britain. Mail was delivered at a standard charge rather than being paid by the recipient. On its first day, 112,000 letters were posted in London alone.
22nd May Britain ended the practice of sending convicts to the penal colony of Australia.
O'Connell's Repeal Association founded.
The census records a population of 8,175,124. See other census records
The Nation, newspaper founded.
13th January  73 men from Newcastle and Annalong Co Down were drowned when their 16 boats were overwhelmed by a sudden storm in the Irish Sea.
6th June The Factory Act in Britain restricted female workers to a 12-hour day; children between eight and 13 years were limited to six-and-a-half hours.
St Johns lighthouse on Co Down coast built.
Brunel's iron steamship the Great Britain goes ashore at Tyrella Co Down, it is re floated the following spring
Beginning of famine. Charles Tteveleyan, permanent Head of Treasury.
Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister, imports Indian Corn.
April. Tteveleyan opens depots for sale of Indian corn,
but closes them later in summer. Repeal of Corn Laws.
July. Lord John Russell replaces Peel as Prime Minister.
Total failure of potato harvest.
October First deaths from starvation.
New Poor Law passed increasing the number of Unions from 130 to 163.
Fever spreading. Tteveleyan winds up Soup Kitchen Act, and retires to write his history of famine.
By 1848 through emigration and deaths by famine, Ireland's population decreased by more than 2 million people (8.5 to 6.5).
The first Encumbered Estates act passed.
The Dublin to Cork rail link opened
12th July 30 Catholics killed at Dolly's Brae near Castlewellan Co Down after a Orange parade was fired on.
A waterwheel 21.43 Meters (70 ft) in diameter was erected at Darkley mill Co Armagh, reputedly the largest in Ireland. See waterpower.
The Dublin to Galway rail rink opened.
The census records a population of 6,552,385.
28th October 25 families (197 people) were deported to America by Lord and Lady Bangor of Castleward County Down, read more.
Vera Foster founds the Irish female Emigration Fund. Scandal ensues after some of the girls it helps are found worKing in New York brothels
29th August Queen Victoria visited the Great Exhibition in Dublin organized by William Dargan, later she payed a visit to his home at Mount Anville where she offered to make him a Knight, Dargan graciously refused.
Income tax is introduced.
26th Jan The White Star Ship Tayleur outward bound from Liverpool towards Australia foundered on Lambay Island in fog 380 of the 652 on board drowned, more inf on line.
Workmen building the Ennis railway discover a hoard of over 500 gold ornaments dating form about 500 BC
18th Nov A parliamentary notice regarding the Abolition of Turnpikes was published in the Carlow Sentinel
The Dublin to Belfast rail link opened. There is 1000 Miles of railway in Ireland
Formation of the Irish Republican brotherhood. (The Fenians)
Beginning of American Civil War.
The census records a population of 5,798,967.
1863 2 July The Irish Brigade of the Army of the Potomac fought at Gettysburg. In one of the most famous incidents of the American Civil War they were blessed and granted general absolution by Father William Corby, the Brigade Chaplain, in front of thousands of their comrades in arms who witnessed this awe inspiring spectacle.
"Irish People" newspaper founded.
There are now 2000 Miles of railway in Ireland.
First transatlantic cable link to Valencia Island Co Kerry.
February: Abortive raid on Chester Castle.
March: Fenian rising in Ireland.
13th Dec Twelve people were killed when Irish terrorists blew up the outer wall of Clerkenwell Prison, London in an attempt to rescue a jailed colleague
The Ardagh Chalice found in a potato field in Limerick.
Gladstone, Prime Minister, dis establishes Protestant Church in Ireland.
25th June. The birth of Robert Erskine Childers, Irish author and nationalist who resigned as a clerk in the House of Commons to promote Irish Home Rule. He was elected as a Sinn Fein member to the Irish assembly and joined the IRA which eventually led to his arrest and execution for being in possession of unauthorized weapons.
Gladstone's first Land Act.
1st January The disestablishment of Church of Ireland takes effect
The census records a population of 5,412,377.
Home rule league founded.
15th Feburary Birth of Sir Ernest Shackleton in Ireland British Antarctic explorer, he accompanied Scott’s original expedition in 1901-4 before leading his own in 1907, he got within a short distance of the South Pole.
26th Dec Boxing Day was officially recognised in Britain as a Bank Holiday. The name originates from the custom of Christmas boxes being given to a lord's serfs and dates back to the middle ages.
Charles Stewart Parnell elected MP for Co Meath.
21 October The Irish National Land League was founded at the Imperial Hotel in Castlebar, County Mayo.
"Land Wars" In which the Irish national land League protect tenant farmers from eviction and urged non payment of rents and 'boycott' of landLords.
The first edition of Boy’s Own Paper was published. The editor was S.O. Beeton, the husband of Mrs. Beeton, the cookery book writer. Mrs Beeton died prematurely of syphilis contracted from her husband.
Parnell elected chairman of the Irish home rule party.
Gladstone's 2nd Land Act. Parnell imprisoned.
October The top half of a lighthouse located on Calf Rock in Bantry Bay snapped off and was carried away during a storm, no lives were lost.
23rd January The Lowest recorded temperature in Ireland occurred . (See our fact file for other similar data,)
The census records a population of 5,174,836.a drop of 3,000,000 since 1841.
Kilmainham "Treaty". Parnell's released.
Phoenix Park murders of Chief secretary for Ireland Lord Frederick Cavendish and his under secretary T H Burke by a splinter group of the Fenians.
The first electric railway in the British Isles is opened between Portrush & Bushmills Co Antrim.
The GAA Gaelic Athletic Association founded in Thurles Co Tipperary.
9th Feb The 'Devil's Footprints' appeared in snowbound south Devon - 100 miles of cloven hoofprints in a single line.
Gladstone's home rule bill defeated in British Parliament.
Irish National Land league founded by Michael Davitt and Charles Stewart Parnell. Protestant MP's for Meath
This is recorded as the driest year. (See our fact file for other similar data,)
13th Nov 'Bloody Sunday' in London when violence erupted in Trafalgar Square at a Socialist rally attended by Irish agitators.
12th June The worst rail disaster in Irish railway history, 80 people mostly children were killed in Co Armagh, more inf.
3,501,683 Irish people entered America between the years 1820-90
Death of Parnell.
The Congested Districts Boards is set up
April : The census records a population of 4,704,750.
Douglas Hyde and Eoin McNeill found Gaelic League.
W B Yeates writes The Celtic Twilight
12th Jan The National Trust was founded by three Victorian philanthropists - Miss Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley.
5th April The trial of Oscar Wilde began on charges of homosexuality.
28th Jan Walter Arnold of Kent was the first British motorist to receive a speeding fine, for exceeding 2 mph in a built-up area. He was doing 8 mph as he passed the house of the local policeman. The constable gave chase on his bicycle and after a 5 mile chase Mr. Arnold was arrested. He was fined one shilling for his offence.
Gladstone's home rule bill passed in British Parliament.
1899 ?
Arthur Griffith formed Sinn Fein (We ourselves)


120,000 tons of coal mined in Ireland, compared to 20,000,000 tons in Scotland
4th April: Queen Victoria begins a three week visit to Ireland.
  22nd Jan Queen Victoria died, aged 81, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Spanning 63 years, her reign, was the longest in British history.
March : The census records a population of 4,458,775.
11th July: The Royal Cork Yacht Club stage the worlds first power boat race
The Hon Charles Rolls, sets up a world land speed record of 93 mph in Phoenix Park.
14th Aug: Wyndham's act introduced, offering inducements to landLords to sell their properties.
The Abbey Theater founded in Dublin.
28th Nov Foundation of Sinn Fein by Arthur Griffith.
7th June Cunard's liner the Lusitania was launched in Glasgow, she was the largest and fastest in the world.
6th July The Irish crown jewels are stolen from Dublin Castle. >>more
26th Jan A riot broke out in the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, on the first night of J.M. Synge’s Playboy of the Western World, when the audience took offence at the ‘foul language’. The riots continued for a week, but the show went on, heavily guarded by police.
20th Dec: The Volta, Irelands first cinema opens in Dublin
The first powered flight in Ireland took place when Harry Ferguson took off from Newcastle beach in Co Down.
April The census records a population of 4,390,219.
9 July King George V and Queen Mary visited the Catholic Seminary of Maynooth. The British king was on a brief tour of Ireland to mark his accession to the throne.
17th Jan Captain Robert Falcon Scott reached the South Pole, only to find that the Norwegian Roald Amundsen had beaten him by one month.
10th April: The Belfast built luxury liner Titanic set sail on its maiden voyage from Berth 44, White Star Line dock, Southampton towards New York.
15th April 2.20 am The White Star liner Titanic sunk.
28th Sept Thousands of Unionists in Northern Ireland signed the Solemn League and Covenant, pledging resistance to Home Rule for Ireland.
The Camogie Association and the Gaelic Athletic Association formed
Formation of Irish Volunteers, Ulster Volunteer Force and The Irish Citizen Army.
7th April The House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule Bill
4th August Britain declared war on Germany after the Germans had violated the Treaty of London, by the end of the conflict some 900,000 soldiers from across the British Empire were killed and two million injured.
7th May  The Cunard Liner Lusitania bound for Liverpool was sunk of the Irish coast by a German submarinee with the loss of almost 1,200 lives.
24th April.The Easter Rising against British rule erupted in Dublin, view a video of the Easter Rising with actual footage.
1st July World War I: At least 20,000 British soldiers were killed and a further 40,000 were injured on the first day of the Battle of the Somme. It was the greatest number of British casualties in a single day's fighting in modern history, many of those killed and injured were Irish.
3rd August Sir Roger Casement, Irish nationalist, is hanged in London for treason following his attempts to induce Germany to support the cause of Irish independence.
13th Nov The Battle of the Somme (World War 1) ended. By the end of the battle, the British Army had suffered 420,000 casualties including nearly 60,000 on the first day alone. The French lost 200,000 men and the Germans nearly 500,000. The battle epitomised the futility of trench warfare and the indiscriminate slaughter of so many men.
18th Dec The Battle of Verdun, the longest engagement of World War I, ended after 10 months and massive loss of life. 23 million shells had been fired and 650,000 were killed.
Jan The heaviest recorded snowfall occurred. (See our fact file for other similar data,)
19th June The British royal family renounced the German names and titles of Saxe-Coburg, (responding to anti-German sentiment) and became Windsor.
5th Feb The Representation of the People Act passed by the British Parliament received the Royal Assent, granting the vote to women over 30. Their first opportunity to use it would come at the General Election on 14th December 1918.
World War I ends, 200,000 Irishmen fought 60,000 died on the battlefields of Europe.

25th Oct Terence MacSwiney, Lord Mayor of Cork, dies on 74th day of hunger strike

21st November, 11 supposed British agents were murdered in Dublin on the order of Michael Collins
Later that day in retaliation soldiers shoot and wound 70 persons attending a football match.
Ireland became a dominion of the British Commonwealth called the Irish Free State.
N I's first parliament is convened in the Belfast City Hall and opened by King George V
6th Dec.Anglo-Irish Treaty signed by Michael Collins Irish independence was granted for the 26 southern states which became known as the Irish Free State. Six counties which formed Ulster (Northern Ireland) remained as part of the UK.
January 7: The Anglo Irish Treaty ratified by the Dail, (64 votes to 57) followed by war between supporters of the Free State and those opposed to the treaty.
10th Jan Arthur Griffith, the founder of Sinn Fein and one of the architects of the 1921 peace treaty with Britain, was elected president of the newly established Irish Free State
August 22, Michael Collins was killed in an ambush by extremist republicans near Bandon, Co Cork. 
16 July Eamon De Valera was released from captivity, he had been held in Kilmainham Jail Dublin
1925 ?
In the new free state a censor is appointed to examine films before they are released.
1st January Douglas Hyde opens Dublin 2 RN later to become Radio Eireann
10 July The Assassination of Kevin O’Higgins, Vice-President of the Executive Council, Minister for Justice and Minister for External Affairs on this day.
15 July The death of Constance Constance Georgine Markievicz, (Countess Markievicz).
1928 ?
The Irish government set up the Censorship Board with powers to ban books and magazines
April : The census records a population of 2,968,420 in the republic.
February : The census records a population of 1,279,745 in Northern Ireland.
Seaplane passenger service to America via Newfoundland begins from Foynes Co Limerick.
23rd June The Government of Eire declared membership of the IRA (Irish Republican Army) to be illegal
1st September World War II breaks out when Germany invades Poland bombing Warsaw at 6am. Ireland remains neutral.
13th January One of Ireland's greatest authors, James Joyce dies. Joyce was born on February 2, 1882
April/May  German air raids kill almost 1,000 people in Belfast, fire engines are sent from County Louth to assist with the resulting fires.
May : Germans bombs kill 34 people in the north strand Dublin, many historical records were lost.
2nd December. Two keepers were injured on the Tusker Rock when a mine drifted ashore
2nd Oct The British cruiser Curacao sank with the loss of 338 lives, after colliding with the liner Queen Mary off the coast of Donegal.
Thousands of American troops arrive in NI where battle schools are set up train them for a planned offensive on Europe.The troops are billeted on estates and farms all over Ulster.
12th March Britain banned all travel to and from Ireland and Ulster in an effort to prevent German spies operating in neutral Eire from learning of the Allied invasion preparations taking place in Britain.
World War II ends.
May : The Eire census records a population of 2,955,107. Irish census.
June : Bord na Mona responsible for the extraction of peat is established.
18th April: The Republic of Ireland Act came into force as Eire became a Republic and left the British Commonwealth.
5th June Nineteen Eighty-Four, George Orwell’s prophetic novel of a world ruled by Big Brother, was published. It seems he may be right, in the UK
Official IRA campaign in North.
April : The Eire census records a population of 2,960,593.
April : The NI census records a population of 1,370,921.
31st Jan A car ferry The Princess Victoria sank in the Irish Sea, in one of the worst gales in living memory, claiming the lives of more than 130 passengers and crew.
5th Feb Queen Elizabeth succeeded to the British throne. The Queen and Prince Philip were on tour in Kenya when they heard the news of the death of her father, King George VI.
25th Feburary. At an inquest, crew members admitted that the Princess Victoria, a ferry which sank off Belfast, had sailed with her bow doors partially open, 128 people lost their lives.
Ireland joins the United Nations
5th Jan The last journey of the Mumbles Railway, the oldest in the world. It was set up in 1804 as a goods railway running from Swansea to Mumbles Head, Wales, and began carrying passengers in 1807.
April : The Eire census records a population of 2,818,341.
April : The NI census records a population of 1,425,042.
Brian O'Neill Sean Lemass Talks.
April : The Eire census records a population of 2,884,002.
October : The NI census records a population of 1,484,775
Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association founded.
August. First Civil Rights March.
October: Derry Civil Rights March, banned by William Craig, Minister of home Affairs, held but broken up by police.
January 4. People's Democracy Belfast to Derry Marchers, attacked at Burntollet Bridge.
April: O'Neill resigns. Chichester Clark appointed Prime Minister.
24th July English rower Tom McLean arrived off the Irish coast to become the first man to row solo across the Atlantic Ocean - from west to east a distance of 2000 miles. His voyage took 72 days.
August 14: British troops sent to Derry.
October: Protestant riot in Belfast.
22nd June The world’s first all-metal liner, Brunel’s 'Great Britain' returned to Bristol from the Falkland Islands where it had lain abandoned since 1886.
First British soldier killed by IRA in Belfast.
February decimal currency introduced in both the north and south.
Chichester Clark resigns, Brian Faulkner Prime Minister. Unionist government of NI introduces internment without trial for suspected terrorists
April : Census records 2,978,248 Eire
April Census records 1,536,065 in NI
13th Oct The British Army blew up border roads in N. Ireland to crack down on IRA gun-running.
22nd Jan The United Kingdom, the Irish Republic, and Denmark joined the Common Market.
30th Jan: Bloody Sunday in Derry. British paratroopers shoot 13 civilians during civil-rights march.
2nd Feb British embassy in Dublin is attacked and burned.
22nd Feb Five women and an army priest were killed in an IRA bomb attack on army premises in Hampshire.
30th March Britain assumed direct rule over Northern Ireland, with William Whitelaw as Secretary of State.
30th May The Official IRA announced a ceasefire, but the Provisional IRA said it would continue fighting until the British left Northern Ireland.
Sunningdale Agreement.
Ulster Workers Strike brings down Faulkner and Assembly.
Direct Rule re-imposed.
20th April The troubles in the north claim their 1,000's victim a petrol station owner from Co Fermanagh.
17th May Loyalist bombs in Dublin killed 24 and in Monaghan 6 die in another bombing.
Irelands biggest robbery to date in Tralee Co Kerry £75,000
15th June: An IRA bomb exploded at the Houses of Parliament, causing extensive damage and injuring 11 people.
Highest wind speed recorded in Kilkeel Co Down. (104) knots. (See our fact file for other similar data,)
28th May Brian Faulkner resigned following a general strike which was called by the Ulster Workers Council in opposition to the proposed Council of Ireland agreed at Sunningdale, the Power-sharing Executive fell.
16th Oct Three prison staff were taken to hospital and dozens of prisoners were injured after rioting and fires at the Long Kesh Maze prison, near Lisburn County Antrim.
22nd Oct A bomb exploded in a London restaurant near to where opposition leader Edward Heath was dining. Three members of staff were injured.
21 Nov The IRA exploded two bombs in two Birmingham Pubs, killing 19 people and injuring 180 others.
18th Dec The Government said that it would pay £42,000 compensation to relatives of the 13 men killed in the Bloody Sunday riots in Londonderry (30th January 1972).
5th January Ten Protestants workmen were gunned down near Bessbrook Co Armagh, in what was believed to be a revenge killing after the recent murder of five Catholics.
31st July The Miami Show band massacre three band members and two UVF men killed.
22nd Octobe The 'Guildford Four' were sentenced to life imprisonment after being found guilty of planting IRA bombs in pubs in Guildford and Woolwich.
29th Oct More than 20 people were injured in an IRA bomb attack on a restaurant in Mayfair, London.
27th Nov Ross McWhirter, TV presenter and co-editor of The Guinness Book of Records, was assassinated by two Provisional IRA gunmen after he had offered a £50,000 reward for information leading to a conviction for several recent high-profile bombings.
12th Dec The six-day Balcombe Street siege ended peacefully in London after four IRA gunmen freed their two hostages and gave themselves up to police.
5th Jan Ten Protestants were murdered in a gun attack in Northern Ireland, in what was believed to be a revenge killing after the murder of five Catholics. More on Wikipedia
21st July The British Ambassador to Ireland, Christopher Ewart-Biggs, was killed by a terrorist car bomb in Dublin.
20th Feburary 11 members of a loyalist gang known as the 'Shankill butchers' were sentenced for 19 sectarian murders in Belfast.
30th March Shadow Northern Ireland Secretary Airey Neave was killed by a car bomb as he left the House of Commons car park.
27th August Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Queen’s cousin.died when the IRA exploded a 50lb, remote-controlled bomb on his boat Shadow V off the coast of County Sligo a local boy was also killed in the explosion.
27th August 18 British soldiers were killed near Narrow Water Castle in County Down by concealed bombs detonated from across the border in County Louth.
5th Nov The trial began in Dublin, of the two men accused of the murder of Lord Mountbatten
27th Oct The start of a hunger strike by Republican prisoners interned in the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland.
1st August. Heaviest recorded rainfall occurred (See our fact file for other similar data,)
1981-82 Ten Republicans die on hunger strike in Maze Prison, NI
29th May In the first Papal visit to Britain since 1531, Pope Paul II prayed alongside the Archbishop of Canterbury, the head of the Church of England, at Canterbury Cathedral.
15th Jan The Northern Ireland civil rights campaigner and former Westminster MP, Bernadette McAliskey, (nee Devlin) and her husband, were shot by gunmen at their home in County Tyrone, both survived.
10th April Imprisoned IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands was elected to Westminster as the MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone.
April : The Eire census records a population of 3,443,405
April : The NI census records a population of 1,481,959
2nd Oct The IRA hunger strike at the Maze prison ended after 10 deaths.
December : Seventeen killed in an INLA bombing of a disco in Derry.
8th Feb The Aga Khan's Derby winner Shergar was kidnapped from a stable in Kildare £2,000,000 ransom was demanded, it was never paid nor was the horse recovered.
17th Dec Three police officers and three members of the public were killed and many others injured after an IRA car bomb attack in London.
14th March Sinn Fein president, Gerry Adams, was shot and wounded in an attack in central Belfast when his car was riddled with bullets.
12th Oct Margaret Thatcher Prime Minister of England escaped an assassination attempt when an IRA bomb exploded in the Grand Hotel, Brighton which was being used by delegates to the Conservative Party Conference. Four people were killed and 30 people injured, including Norman Tebbitt, the Employment Secretary, and his wife
USA president Ronald Regan pays an official visit to Ireland and Ballyporeen the town in Limerick from where his great grandfather emigrated to America.
23rd June : Air India jet crashes of the Co Kerry coast with a loss of 329 lives.
8th June: Barry McGuigan won the world featherweight title at Loftus Road, London.
1st September The wreck of the liner 'Titanic' was found by Dr Robert Ballard 73 years after it sunk.
15th Nov Britain and the Republic of Ireland signed a deal giving Dublin a role in Northern Ireland for the first time in more than 60 years. Unionists accused Mrs. Thatcher of treachery
23rd June: Brighton bomber Patrick Magee, found guilty of planting the bomb at the Grand Hotel, Brighton during the Conservative Party Conference in 1983, was jailed for a minimum of 35 years.
March The national lottery is launched in the Republic.
September. Enniskillen bombing 11 people killed attending remembrance day service
15th Oct The worst hurricane to hit Britain since records began devastated southern England and caused at least 17 deaths.
27th Oct Gilbert McNamee was sentenced to 25 years in prison for being an IRA bomb maker.
8th Nov An IRA bomb exploded shortly before a Remembrance Day service at the Cenotaph in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, killing 11 people.
British army kill 8 IRA and a civilian in an ambush at Loughgall Co Armagh.
6th March Three IRA terrorists were shot dead by SAS men in Gibraltar.
18th Oct British Home Secretary, Douglas Hurd, banned all broadcasts involving terrorist. IRA spokesmen could be seen, but not heard, although their statements could be reported by the media.
20th April Scientists reported that the Earth had narrowly missed being struck by an asteroid weighing 400 million tons
22nd Sept An IRA bomb attack on the Royal Marines School of Music killed 11 people, (10 of them young soldiers) and injured twelve of the bandsmen.
19th Oct The 'Guildford Four' had their convictions quashed after wrongly serving 14 years in prison for the IRA bombings at Guildford and Woolwich.
9th April Four UDR soldiers were killed when the IRA remotely detonated a 1,000 lb culvert bomb outside Downpatrick County Down
1st Dec Britain and France were joined for the first time in thousands of years as the last wall of rock separating two halves of the Channel Tunnel was removed.
1990-97 Mary Robinson served as Ireland's first female president.
Feb 7th IRA fire mortor bombs at 10 Downing Street.
25th Feb After serving 17 years in prison, it was announced that 'the Birmingham Six' would soon be released when it was decided that their convictions were unsafe. All were jailed in 1975 for an IRA attack on two pubs in Birmingham in November 1974 in which 21 people died.
14th March The 'Birmingham Six' were freed from jail after 16 years when their convictions for the murder of 21 people in two pubs were quashed by the Court of Appeal.
April : The NI census records a population of 1,577,836.
April : The Eire census records a population of 3,525,719.
26th June After campaigning to prove their innocence for 15 years, the 'Maguire Seven' were cleared by the Court of Appeal of running an IRA bomb factory in England.
15th Nov In the wake of increased sectarian violence in Northern Ireland, Britain called up 1,400 reserve troops for full-time active duty.
10th Jan An IRA bomb exploded in Whitehall, London, 1000 ft. from Downing Street.
EEU (European Economic Union) formed.
Downing Street Declaration; British Government accepts the right of the people of Ireland to self determination.
A massive bomb ripped through the the City of London, killing one and injuring more than 40.
28th Nov The Northern Ireland peace process and Prime Minister John Major's credibility were dealt a blow when secret government contacts with the IRA were publicly disclosed.
15th Dec The British and Irish prime ministers John Major and Albert Reynolds signed the historic Joint Declaration for Peace which they hoped would end 25 years of bombing and murder in Northern Ireland.
18 June Adrian Rogan (34), Malcolm Jenkinson (52), Barney Greene (87), Daniel McCreanor (59), Patrick O'Hare (35) and Eamon Byrne (39), all Catholic civilians, were shot dead by the Ulster Volunteer Force during a gun attack, on The Heights Bar, Loughinisland.
31st August After 3,168 deaths over a 25 year period the IRA declare a cease-fire.
13th October Loyalist organizations declare a cease fire.
9th December British officials meet Sinn Fein for talks.
Cease-fire breaks down after Britain's Conservative government refuses to allow Sinn Fein to join all-party talks on NI.
9th Feb The IRA detonated an enormous bomb in London's Docklands, effectively bringing an end to the cease-fire and signalling the start of a new bombing campaign on mainland Britain.
15th June: An IRA bomb, the biggest ever to go off on the British mainland, desimated the centre of Manchester. 200 people were taken to hospital the explosion caused an estimated £100 million worth of damage.
5th April The 150th running of the Grand National at Aintree, Liverpool was cancelled because of an IRA bomb scare.
IRA cease-fire resumes; talks begin in Belfast between government of Irish Republic, Britain and representatives of all NI's political parties.
4th January Loyalist prisoners in Maze Prison, Northern Ireland, vote to withdraw support for the Ulster Peace Process. They claim that too many concessions have been made to Republicans.
6th March Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams warned the public that the IRA was prepared for another 25 years of war.
10th April: The Northern Ireland peace talks ended with an historic agreement called the Good Friday Agreement.
22nd May Northern Ireland voted 'Yes' to a new peace agreement designed to end 30 years of violence between Protestants and Catholics.
15th Aug A bomb blast in Omagh, Northern Ireland, killed 28 people and injured more than 300 others. A 29th victim died a month later. It was the worst attack in 29 years of paramilitary violence in Ulster.
8th Sept The dissident republican group behind Northern Ireland's worst atrocity (the Real IRA) declared its violence at an end.


United State Census reports 30,528,492 persons claiming Irish ancestry, 10.8% the population this figure is 60 times that of Ireland
29th April The Northern Ireland Census records a population of 1,685,267 this represents 2.87% of the total UK population
3rd Aug A bomb exploded in a busy west London street, injuring seven people. Dissident Irish republicans were blamed.
28 April The Eire Census records a population of 3,917,336
15th Feb Protests against the Iraq war occurred in over 600 cities worldwide. Estimates from 8,000,000 - 30,000,000 people took part, making this the largest peace demonstration ever.
December. Largest bank raid in Irish history takes place on The Northern Bank in Belfast republicans are suspected.
16th Feb The Kyoto Protocol that aimed to slow down global warming took effect, but the US and Australia refused to support it.
17th Feburary: Hunting with dogs became illegal in Britain.
The Northern bank recall its currency and issue new.
Oct Several business premises in Belfast are destroyed by descendent Republicans
15th July The Nomadic arrived back in Belfast after 95 years.
Nov The Assets Recovery Bureau in the south, seized property valued at one million euros, in County Louth belonging to a brother of a local IRA commander.
  Nov 24th Michael Stone a loyalist terrorist enters the Stormont building in Belfast with a gun and bomb ?